Only a republic cannot give a country the opportunity to achieve modern civilization. At the request of modern civilization, a social structure based on legal, political, social, economic and universal human rights is created not through a republic, but through democracy.

On October 29, the 98th anniversary of the Republic of Turkey was celebrated. As always, there were repeated performances.A transition was made from the monarchy (Sultanate) to the Republic .Despite the fact that some necessary changes have taken place with this historic step, nevertheless, the republic has continued to be a form of a barren state of a barren country for 98 years․


In 1933, in his 10th speech, M. Kemal Ataturk spoke about the goal of the young republic and said: “We will raise our country to the level of modern civilizations”.

Modern civilization is currently the standard for the general development of society in the fields of law, politics, social, economics, science and culture. In accordance with this, we can use the concept of democracy for modern civilization.The place where modern civilization is represented is undoubtedly Western countries.

M. Kemal’s goal of achievement in modern civilization is political attitude and strong will. However, since then we have not reached the level of modern civilization, namely democracy.

History always continues with its ups and downs. Revolutions are just flights into this continuous situation, and they do not cause an interruption of the social process, but lead to radical transformations.Whether this door can be opened later or not, or to what extent it will pass, is largely determining the social conditions of this country. That is, the subject of the revolution, at the end, depends on the objectivity of this society and the form of relations with it. Of course, this reality constantly does not nullify the role of the subject. As a factor of the dynamism of the social process, politics forces it to transform into objective conditions in accordance with its goals or opens the way for its transformation. However, this may not always be the case.

The general theoretical situation in the Republic of our country should be sought in the harmonious relations between the problematic Republic-democracy and the Republic – the overwhelming power.

Angular difference between target and objective conditions

What kind of Turkish society was there when the goal was announced to reach the level of modern civilization? So, what were the political goals proclaimed in the statement and the objective conditions of society for achieving this goal? Since the 1880s (which, one can assume, is a common start date), the Ottoman Empire (1896, 1909, 1915, 1919) and the Republic (1923. population exchange, 1934 Trakia events, 1942 wealth tax, September 56-19 (1964 events) to continue the Elimination of non-Muslims, Islamization and especially churning made Anatolia barren. Especially the massacre against Armenians in 1915 is a complete catastrophe.When the republic was founded, it had a whole provincial society, tired, hungry and almost entirely consisting of towns and villages. And the policy of Turkization continued during the republican period.


It was non-Muslims who occupied a significant part of the production and trading activities in society and put forward innovations in this area. Almost all cultural and artistic activities in society were carried out by non-Muslims.

They were pioneers in the field of Press and broadcasting. Educational activity was much earlier than Muslims. In the political arena, they had cultural worlds, parties and associations open to the West.

Here are two examples: The first newspaper of the province of Sebastia was published by Armenians in 1869. Before 1914, 8 Armenian newspapers were published on various dates.In 1864, the Armenians founded a printing house in the province of Sebastia and ensured the publication of a provincial newspaper.

The writer Djudane Djundeoglu describes the cultural desert, quoting Munever Ayashl.

In 1900, “… in the Armenian quarter, 40 pianos took to the street out of fear of fire’.

“There is not a single store in Ankara that sells pianos and sheet music for piano.

(Münevver Ayaşlı, Dersaadet, p. 51, Istanbul, 1975) quoted (40 piano-ducane cündioğlu simurg in Ankara).

The main author of ” Ataturk” Falih Rifki Atay also talks about the tragedy of cleaning non-Muslims and the loss of values in society.

The pianos that came out of Armenian homes in the 1915s show the culture and art level of this society of the time. When we turn these examples into cities of the epoch, we can see a big picture of the spheres of architecture, art, culture and the press.

What kind of society has the Republic found?

The rural society, which cannot even produce or repair its own working equipment, is obliged to grow barley for its horses, and soldiers for the state, and is not open to innovation and has found refuge in trust.The rural society, which cannot even produce or repair its own working equipment, is obliged to grow barley for its horses. The Republic of a barren Society also becomes barren. It is more likely that a society with a non-Muslim population, which was trained in accordance with the conditions of the era, will reach modern civilization. However, the difference between politics and society, which set the goal of civilization at the time of the Republicans, was great. Worst of all, the Republic facing the West has largely distanced itself from the behavior aimed at eliminating the difference from this corner.

The main feature of the Turkish Republic

The Republic founded by the civil-military bureaucracy and the military (there was no other class option) wants to control and suppress society in all spheres, in accordance with this organizational structure. The authorities, along with military-police and judicial mechanisms, use ideology and culture as a way to do this. Turkism and Sunni Islam, as an image of a republican state, have easily come to life in this society in accordance with their historical background.

This policy of Turkism and Sunni Islam, which is inherent in the republic (outside the social definition), it is the biggest obstacle to democratic politics and the accessibility of a culture based on the fact that society is the majority. Not pluralism.

Another obstacle is the continuity of the formation of the government, consisting of bureaucracy-a politician-a business triangle, in the process of founding the republic. The most important sign of this formation of power is the understanding of the plundering of public resources.The Republic wanted to preserve itself in this way, and although it partially survived political deviations with the Erdogan government, however, it continues on this basis.

98-year history shows us the fact that the goal of the republic – to achieve modern civilization, was blocked by the same Republic.

The reason for this is the image of the Turkish Republic.

A republic without democracy.

First of all, we state that the Republic is a form of statehood. The republican state proceeds from the source of its existence not from God or the monarch, but from the people, as expressed by the slogan “sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the nation.” The basis of sovereignty on the people and the way this sovereignty is applied are two separate phenomena.At the moment, the concept of democracy, in other words, modern civilization, is emerging. Therefore, a republic can be either autocratic or Democratic. Many countries of the world have republics, but do not have a democratic social structure or regime. There is no democracy in Turkey, except for crumbs.Especially these days, these crumbs will be destroyed with scissors.

Only a republic cannot give a country the opportunity to achieve modern civilization.

The legal, political, social, economic and social structure based on universal human rights, which is a requirement of modern civilization, is acquired not through the republic, but through democracy.More precisely, the Republic is paving the way for this, and to go this way means that the republic is full of democracy.

I would like capitalism to develop only if my ingrained criticism of capitalism remains. Thus, there would be no coups and authoritarian governments in the emerging legal system.

For 100 years we would not have fought against disputes and conflicts in barracks and mosques. All these realities are an obstacle to our democratization, but they are not insurmountable. Here, our goal should not be to rotate in the concept of the republic, engage in hostility or  limit political demands. Any policy that is not aimed at a Democratic Republic is the assertion of a sovereign, oligarchic and hegemonic power under the name of the republic and the desire to enrich themselves with this achieved power.

Husein Shegul

Writer, journalist