Edessia-Urfa of Western Armenia is a historical city in Upper Mesopotamia, which in ancient times was also called Armenian Mesopotamia. In 1144 Edessia was captured, destroyed and exterminated  by Emir Zang in Aleppo. The famous work of Nerses Shnorali “The sorrow of Edessia” is dedicated to this fateful disaster for the city. Later, the city fell under Turkish rule forever. In ancient times, Edessia was a great center of culture. There was a high-type school – a lyceum. The Armenian Mesropian script was created here, and Matteos Urhayetsi, a 12th century Armenian historian, was from here. Edessia had a strong fortress located on the southern side of the city, a deep depression around the walls with a total length of 10-12 km. In 1895 and 1915, during the pogroms of Armenians in Edessia, thousands of Armenians were killed, and the survivors were deported in different directions. Currently, there are about 1,000 Armenians living in the city.