Armenian koshenil (vordan karmir)became widespread during the Arab invasions of Ⅵ-Ⅸ centuries.

It was called “the miracle of the east” for its healing properties and pleasantness to the eye and taste. Red dye was used for royal and Catholic seals. It was used to dye royal dresses. It was used to make oils that rejuvenated and preserved the skin. There are surviving references that show that red was also used to give a blush to the face.

This dye had a wide application in medicine. It was used as an antipyretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory agent. In one of his works, the great Armenian physician Amirdovlat Amasiatzi gives interesting information about the peculiarities of this dye.

The paint was used in miniature painting, wall painting and carpet making. The 4500 year old Pazirik carpet discovered in the Altai region, which is the oldest fully preserved carpet in the world, is also decorated with red color.

Even now on the walls of Armenian churches one can see traces of vordan karmir, which have not faded. Among the best examples of them are miniatures preserved in the monastic complexes of Akhtala and Kabayr