Russian-Turkish Treaty of Moscow 1920-1921

The first Russian-Turkish conference in Moscow took place in July-August 1920 to sign an agreement regulating relations between Kemalist Turkey and Soviet Russia. In the military commission, Turkish Lieutenant Colonel Seyfi offers to supply weapons and ammunition, oil, etc. to the Turkish government in a short period of time. Although not all requests were accepted, an agreement was reached to provide financial assistance to the Turkish government and provide the necessary quantity of weapons and ammunition. The question of territorial demarcations aroused strong disagreement during the conference, which ended on August 24 with the development of a draft agreement defining the main principles of relations between the parties.

It contained clauses on non-recognition of agreements imposed by force on the parties, cancellation of previously signed agreements between Tsarist Russia and the Turkish government, confidence in the resolution of the Straits situation at the Conference of Powers of the Black Sea, the conclusion of economic agreements. , financial and consular agreements, etc. For Armenia, the 3rd was particularly important and Article 4, the first of which stipulated that the parties undertake, by mutual agreement, to take all necessary measures as soon as possible to open channels of communication , communication between Russia and Kemal Turkey for the purpose of transporting people and goods. It became clear that this route had to be opened to Armenia.

Article 4 said: that Russia agrees to undertake mediation between Kemal’s Turkey and neighboring third states which maintain under their authority any territory included in the Turkish “National Pact”. Recognizing the “National Pact”, the Soviet government thus accepted Turkey’s right to Batumi, Kars and Ardahan. And since these regions were part of Armenia and Georgia, it was decided to postpone the issue of determining the northern border of Turkey Kemalan, which is why the final signing of the prepared agreement is postponed. This draft treaty was then developed on the basis of the Moscow Treaty of 1921.