93 Harbi ve Hamidiye Alayları

Although the Hamidian regiments were predominantly Kurdish, they included Arab, Turkmen and Karapak tribes.

The so-called Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878, the outcome of which had marked the policy of Abdulhamid II, who unfortunately ascended the throne, was at once on the brink of war and almost a turning point in the Ottoman Empire.

The Russian-Turkish War of April 1877-1878 cost the old Ottomans dearly. The Treaties of Ajastefanos, signed on 3 March 1878, and Berlin, signed on 13 July 1878, contained very strict preconditions. The Ottoman Empire ended its rule in the Balkans, losing about a third of its land or 20 per cent of its population.

Under Article 16 of San Stefano and Article 61 of Berlin, the Ottomans were obliged to carry out reforms in the interests of Armenian society, as well as to take measures to protect Armenians from attacks by Kurds and Circassians and suppress the rebellions of the latter.

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